In today’s post, David Gamble discusses a red hot topic for many a ceramic artist: how to achieve reliable red glazes. If you have ever tried to formulate a red glaze, you know how difficult it can be. And even if you buy commercial red glazes, you understand that they need a certain amount of attention and precision paid to them during application and firing.
This article will help you understand and keep track of all the variables when applying and firing red ceramic glazes. – Jennifer Poellot Harnetty, editor.
I’ll start by explaining there are two different types of commercial red glazes that I normally use. One type is an extremely bright color and harder to achieve and the other is a newer tomato red color that is AP (Approved Product of the Arts and Creative Materials Institute) nontoxic and dinnerware safe. The latter is formulated with inclusion stains, which are continuing to be improved. The color is encased in zircon, which makes them safe to use even in the classroom.
The AP nontoxic reds are extremely stable and were used to create red velvet underglazes that can be fired from cone 05 to as high as cone 10 – only salt seems to blush them out.
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The success of underglazes has allowed the development of gloss and matt red glazes that have been formulated to work well at the low-fire cone 05 range and other glazes formulated for the cone 4-6 range. These are extremely reliable. Three brushed coats will usually be enough of an application and you get nice tomato color reds at both temperatures.
Bright reds are not dinnerware safe and are extremely sensitive to variations in firing conditions. There have been many times that an art teacher has asked me about the use of these types of red glazes. I understand the space and time challenges that teachers face, but you cannot put these glazes in with your normal glaze firings and expect good results. They are affected by how tight the load is stacked, other glazes (mostly copper greens), and temperature. If you’re firing to cone 05, I can almost guarantee there will be problems. The glaze will most likely have variations from clear to gray to black, and if you’re lucky, a spot or two of red.
Note: Amaco glazes were used in the pieces shown here, however, many companies produce similar glazes.
Here are my suggestions of what you need to know and do to achieve the bright reds!
Bisque your clay body slowly to cone 04 (12 hours to get all the gases out). Although these glazes are not considered translucent, the clay body color does affect them slightly. White bodies will make the glaze appear brighter in color than darker bodies.
Using a brush, apply the glaze thicker than the normal three coats. Four coats will usually work, but too heavy an application may cause the glaze to run. Glaze application may need experimentation and practice.
Load the kiln very loosely. There is a need for lots of space between the pieces for air circulation. I leave the peephole plugs out during the firing, thus allowing extra oxygen to enter the kiln chamber.
Do not fire above cone 06 (1828°F), preferably using witness cones for observation. I have been firing at cone 07 (1789°F) with great results. These glazes seem to like the cooler temperatures.
Fire as quickly as you can, four hours is ideal. If your pieces are larger, an example being my 22-inch platters, take them up slowly to about 1200°F. This may help to eliminate cracking problems. Then turn the kiln on high to fast fire to the end of the firing.
If your kiln is vented through the bottom with a system that draws air through the top of the kiln, this will help give you more oxygen in the kiln and better red results. Remember that kilns, depending on how they are stacked, may not fire that evenly. This can cause cold spots and hot spots. There can be a difference in temperature equal to a couple of cones from top to bottom-depending where the kiln sitter or thermocouple is located. This variability can really affect bright red glazes. Newer kilns with zone control and multiple thermocouples tend to fire more evenly. If you have an older kiln, place cones in the top, middle and bottom of the kiln so you can keep a record of what happens in the firing. They can help provide answers if problems do occur.
Now that you know the process, I will describe my experimentation with red glazes. I’ve been placing them on different color clay bodies, layering over glazed fired pieces and layering one coat of gold glaze over the top.
I then place the pieces next to peep holes to brighten the color or place shelves over the edges to deepen and take away the color. This is what is exciting to me – not getting it perfect, but having the surface color change and vary while having some control over what the changes will be. I am an extreme advocate of using commercial glazes the way a painter would use his tubes of paint. Experiment, test to the “max” and make them your own. Years ago, I was asked to be a glaze doctor at the National Council on Education for the Ceramic Arts (NCECA) in Las Vegas. I agreed, but told them to label me a glaze deviate instead of a glaze doctor.
Don’t be afraid to experiment. Don’t be afraid to sacrifice a few pieces on the way to discovering something more exciting.