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Ceramic Materials and their Primary Functions

common ceramic raw materialsWhile not an exhaustive list of things you could potentially mix up and put in your kiln, these are the primary materials most commonly used for what we most commonly do in the ceramic studio. When you just need a quick reminder of why you are using a specific material, or as a starting place to substitute a material, check here first.

Material Glaze Function Substitute Comment
Barium Carbonate Flux Strontium carbonate
Bentonite Suspension agent Ball Clay Do not exceed 3%
Bone Ash Opacifier
Borax Flux, glassmaker Boron frits
Chrome Oxide Colorant Green
Cobalt Carbonate Colorant Cobalt oxide Blue
Copper Carbonate Colorant Copper oxide Greens, copper reds
Cornwall Stone Flux, opacifier
Custer Feldspar Glaze core Potash feldspar (G-200HP)
Dolomite Flux, opacifier Whiting Many brands
EPK Kaolin Alumina, opacity Kaolin
Ferro Frit 3110 Glaze core, flux Pemco P-IV05, Fusion F-75 Crystalline glazes
Ferro Frit 3124 Glaze core, flux F-19, P-311, Hommel 90 Boron frit
Ferro Frit 3134 Glaze core, flux F-12, P-54, Hommel 14 Boron frit
Ferro Frit 3195 Glaze core, flux Hommel 90, Fusion F-2 Complete glaze
Ferro Frit 3269 Flux, glaze core Pemco P-25
Ferro Frit 3278 Flux, glaze core Fusion F-60, Pemco P-830
G-200 Feldspar Glaze core Potash feldspar (Custer)
Green Nickel Oxide Colorant Black nickel oxide Blues, tan, browns, greens, grays
Kentucky OM4 Ball Clay Alumina, opacity Ball Clay
Kona F-4 Feldspar Glaze core Soda feldspar
Lithium Carbonate Flux
Magnesium Carbonate Flux, opacifier Promotes crawling
Manganese Dioxide Colorant Purple, red, yellow-brown
Nepheline Syenite Glaze core
Red Iron Oxide Colorant Celadon green to brown
Rutile Colorant Ilmenite
Silica Glass former, glaze fit Flint Use 325 mesh
Spodumene Lithium glaze core
Strontium Carbonate Flux Barium carbonate
Talc Flux, opacifier Many brands
Tin Oxide Opacifier Zircopax
Titanium Dioxide Opacifier
Whiting Flux, opacifier Wollastonite, Dolomite Many brands
Wollastonite Flux, opacifier Whiting, dolomite
Wood Ash Glaze core, flux, colorant Whiting Results vary by type
Zinc Oxide Flux, opacifier
Zircopax Opacifier Superpax, Ultrox

Notes
1. Substituting glaze ingredients may alter color, texture, opacity, viscosity, and/or sheen, as well as create pinholing, crazing, black spotting, and/or pitting. In most cases, additional adjustments to other ingredients need to occur when substituting.
2. Test and record your results.
3. Materials vary from supplier to supplier and batch to batch.

Ceramic Materials and their Primary Functions

Atmosphere:

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Ingredients

Instructions

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